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CELL TYPE LINEAGE LOCATION NEUROTRANSMITTER ASSOCIATED GLIA

I1L
I1R

Pharyngeal Interneuron

ABalpapppaa
ABarapappaa

Pharynx anterior bulb

Express neuropeptide-like protein NLP-3 (Nathoo A. et al 2001).

None
DESCRIPTION

Pharyngeal interneurons. The anterior projections from these cells insert onto muscles pm1 and pm2s, and have a free subcuticular, proprioceptive-like (postulated sensory) ending at the anterior end. They also extend to the basement membrane here to receive input from the somatic RIP neurons. The posterior axonal projections of the I1s run within the subventral nerve cords and then run around the pharyngeal nerve ring to the dorsal side where they meet in gap junctions. The termination of the anterior projections in the dorsal pharyngeal nerve cord is variable (Albertson D. J. and Thomson J. N., 1976).

Functions: The pharyngeal and somatic nervous systems are connected to each other via gap junctions between the extrapharyngeal RIP neurons and the pharyngeal I1 neurons. When this connection is disrupted by ablation of RIPs, pharyngeal pumping becomes unresponsive to light touch which is sensed by somatic touch neurons (Avery L, and Thomas J. H., 1997). I1s also synapse on MC neurons and modulate the rate of pharyngeal pumping in the absence of bacteria (Avery L, and Thomas J. H., 1997).

Receptor expression: Express glutamate receptor subunits, GLR-7 , GLR-8 (Brockie P.J. et al 2001). Suggested to express G-protein coupled muscarinic acetylcholine receptor ACM-2 (F47D12.2). acm-2 mutants display an increased pharyngeal pumping rate and an increased sensitivity to nicotine (Steger K and Avery L., 2001).