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|Body; Ventral cord||
(C. elegans book II CSHL Press, 1997.Rand J.B. and Nonet M.L. Appendix II: Neurotransmitter assignments for specific neurons)
Ventral cord "dorsal A" motor neurons. These neurons innervate dorsal muscles. Hermaphrodites and males exhibit some differences in DAn connectivity.
Functions: Backward locomotion. DA's receive input from the driver interneuron AVA, and modulator interneurons AVD and AVE. They send output to VD neurons. See Locomotory circuit.
Receptor expression: Express UNC-8, a DEG/ENaC family member homologous to subunits of a candidate mechanically gated ion channel (Tavernarakis N. et al, 1997). DA9 expresses a splice variant of the tyramine receptor SER-2 (Tsalik E. L. et al, 2003).
Male Wiring Project
Note: In males, DA8 and DA9 cell bodies lies posterior to the male-specific CP9 neuron, which defines the anterior boundary of the male pre-anal ganglion (see Male Tail Cell ID). In males, DA8 and DA9 are therefore considered part of the pre-anal ganglion rather than the ventral nerve cord.
For Male Wiring Project details see "Connectivity" link in Emmons lab website.
Schematic Diagrams of Ventral Cord motor neurons:
|AS neurons||DA and DB neurons||VA neurons|
|VB neurons||VC neurons||DD and VD neurons|
In all diagrams,axon processes with neuromuscular synapses (NMJ) are shown as whereas dendritic processes where synaptic inputs are received are shown as .
Class A axons run forward in both cords (VNC and DC) whereas the class B axons run backwards. The dendritic branches of the dorsal and ventral class A neurons run in opposite directions as do those from class Bneurons. Ventral class D neurons receive their synaptic input on the dorsal side and give NMJ's on the ventral side. The dorsal type D neurons have half the periodicity of their ventral counterparts and receive synapses on the ventral side and give NMJ's on the dorsal side. Class AS neurons only synapse on the dorsal side and have no ventral counterpart, whereas, the class C neurons only synapse on the ventral side. The synapses from class C motor neurons onto body muscles are less dense than for the other classes (White J. et al, 1976)