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The animals studied were from the Caenorhabditis elegans (N2) strain maintained at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge University. Cells of the head were traced through one series of more than 800 sections of a normal (N2) hermaphrodite animal. The general cell arrangement was confirmed in a second less complete series of a normal hermaphrodite, and a series of longitudinal sections was cut of another. These worms were fixed only in 1 % osmium tetroxide in 0.1 M phosphate buffer for 1 h. Worms in various stages of moulting were selected according to criteria established by Singh and Sulston (1978). These were fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde in 0.1 M phosphate buffer for 2 h and postfixed 1 h in 1% OsO4. They were oriented in agar, dehydrated, and embedded in Araldite epoxy. Sections were stained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate.
Living animals were examined by differential interference microscopy in bacterial culture preparations as described by Sulston (1976) and photographed with electronic flash.
Adapted by Yusuf KARABEY for WORMATLAS, 2003