(Pereira et al., 2015)
None yet reported, although described to have gap junctions in adult animals (MoW)
- GCY-32; guanylyl cyclase
- GCY-35; guanylyl cyclase which binds molecular oxygen and mediates oxygen sensation
- NPR-1; neuropeptide Y receptor like protein
- PDFR-1; pigment dispersing factor receptor ortholog
(Barrios et al, 2012; Gray et al., 2004; Coates and de Bono, 2002; Yu et al., 1997)
- Functions in aerotaxis, and along with AQR, URX and AUA regulate social feeding (or aggregation on a bacterial lawn) and bordering(the accumulation of animals on the thickest part of a bacterial lawn) behavior. Suppressing the activity of AQR, PQR and URX neurons inhibits social feeding (Coates and de Bono , 2002). AQR, PQR and URX function as sensors of environmental oxygen which is a quantitative regulator of social feeding (Gray et al., 2004). Studies indicate that animals that carry the npr-1 (215F) allele or that lack npr-1 function tend to dwell (slow down) in low ambient O2 and roam (disperse) or aggregate in high ambient O2. In this model, drops in O2 lead to increased activity of a GCY-35/GCY-36 heterodimeric soluble guanylate cyclase. Rising cGMP, in turn, opens the TAX-2/TAX-4 cGMP-gated ion channel in AQR, PQR and URX leading to their depolarization and when the food is present, strong suppression of roaming behavior (Cheung et al., 2005). In npr-1 mutants these neurons are thought to be hyperactive (see URX page for a full description).
- AQR, PQR and URX suppress innate immunity via NPR-1, which regulates both PMK-1-dependent and PMK-1-independent immune responses (Styer et al., 2008). Since URX , AQR, PQR are exposed to pseudocoelomic fluid, they are hypothesized to communicate neuroendocrine signals to nonneural tissues involved in innate immunity defense responses.
- AQR, PQR and URX are weak CO2-sensors and contribute to CO2 avoidance (main CO2 sensors are AFD, BAG and ASE) (Bretscher et al., 2011)
- Part of the neuronal circuit that functions in mate-searching behavior of males
(Barrios et al, 2012)